Methodology

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How did different newspapers around the globe cover the first week of the 2008 Beijing Olympics?
This study documented that the whole world was watching the games – but that every country saw different things.

The study focused on images and stories published on front pages of newspapers from around the world during the first week of the Olympics, from August 8 – 14.  The study, conducted live during the Olympics by faculty and students attending the Salzburg Academy on Media & Global Change in Salzburg, Austria, looked at coverage by 68 newspapers, in 10 languages, in 29 countries, across six continents.

The study analyzed the front pages including headlines, copy, images and captions of those newspapers.  For this study, 59 coders, working in their native languages—Afrikaans, Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Korean, Portuguese and Spanish—used an online codebook of 28 questions to code 484 front-page stories.  The reliability rate was 91%.

Tools and Instruments
The project strived to used free and readily available tools and instruments to organize and manage the content and coders to gather and process the data.

The study used the following websites to access PDF copies of newspaper front pages: newseum.org, newspapercatalog.com and pressdisplay.com. Some front pages were downloaded and then uploaded to box.net since they were not archived by the original source.

To organize and sort content and to test for intercoder reliability, the project utilized Google Docs, where all the instructions and links to content were posted for the coders to access.

Wordpress.com was used for distributing coding schedules and the codebook instrument, which was created in surveymonkey.com.This online surveying service also offered the tools to make basic analysis of the gathered data.

Research Team and Process
Seven students from the 2008 Salzburg Academy assisted in organizing the project, searching for and updating the content, and testing and revising the codebook. The Codebook was reviewed by the Salzburg Academy faculty and tested until a relibility rate of 91% was achieved.

When it came to the daily process, the research team uploaded all the content that would be analyzed to Google Docs, which was later posted as a web site and linked to a Wordpress page that had the codebook URL and instructions on how to access the instrument and content.

Codebook
Consistent with the goals of this study, the codebook provided a wide lens of analysis. The codebook included questions about the focus of the headline and lead, the main topic covered in the story and how it was framed, the main genders, sports and issues portrayed in the images.  Other questions asked about the tone of the coverage, including towards China, and the prominence of the coverage.

Content
The following are the analyzed newspapers, divided into six regions.  Faculty from those regions selected the major newspapers to be analyzed, but in some cases, their choices were limited by the availability of front page pdf copies of those papers.

Arabic world:
1.    Al Ghad (Jordan)
2.    Al Akhbar (Lebanon)
3.    Al Safir (Lebanon)
4.    Al Hayat (Saudi Arabia)
5.    Al Bayan (UAE)

Australia, Canada/USA & Europe:
6.    Der Standard (Austria)
7.    The Age (Australia)
8.    The Globe and Mail (Canada)
9.    National Post (Canada)
10.    Les Echos (France)
11.    Le Figaro (France)
12.    Die Welt (Germany)
13.    Daily Telegraph (UK)
14.    The Guardian (UK)
15.    The Herald (UK)
16.    Chicago Tribune (USA)
17.    LA Times (USA)
18.    Miami Herald (USA)
19.    New York Times (USA)
20.    USA Today (USA)
21.    Washington Post (USA)

China:
22.    Beijing Times (China)
23.    China Daily  (China)
24.    China Youth Daily (China)
25.    Chongqing Morning (China)
26.    Dongjiang Daily (China)
27.    Guangzhou Daily (China)
28.    People's Daily (China)
29.    Tibetan Business Daily (China)
30.    United Daily (China-Taiwan)
31.    Western China Metropolitan (China)
32.    Xinmin Evening (China)
33.    Yangzhou Daily (China)

Latin America & Spain:
34.    Clarín (Argentina)
35.    La Nación (Argentina)
36.    La Razon (Argentina)
37.    Estado de S. Paolo (Brazil)
38.    Folha De S. Paulo (Brazil)
39.    El Mercurio (Chile)
40.    La Tercera (Chile)
41.    El Tiempo (Colombia)
42.    La Jornada (Mexico)
43.    Milenio Diario (Mexico)
44.    El Universal (Mexico)
45.    La Prensa (Panama)
46.    La Prensa (Paraguay)
47.    Ultima Hora (Paraguay)
48.    El Mundo (Spain)
49.    La Vanguardia (Spain)
50.    El País (Uruguay)
51.    El Universal (Venezuela)

Sub-Saharan Africa:
52.    Daily Nation (Kenya)
53.    The Namibian Windhoek (Namibia)
54.    Beeld (S. Africa)
55.    Die Burger (S. Africa)
56.    The Cape Times (S. Africa)
57.    The Citizen (S. Africa)
58.    The Times Johannesburg (S. Africa)
59.    Daily Monitor (Uganda)

India & South Korea:
60.    The Asian Age (India)
61.    Dainik Bhaskar (India)
62.    The Hindu (India)
63.    Hindustan Times (India)
64.    The Indian Express (India)
65.    Times of India-Mumbai (India)
66.    Times of India-Delhi (India)
67.    Dong-A Ilbo (S. Korea)
68.    Maeil Business Newspaper (S. Korea)

The study assessed newspapers from the following 29 countries:

1.    Argentina
2.    Australia
3.    Austria
4.    Brazil
5.    Canada
6.    Chile
7.    China
8.    China-Taiwan
9.    Colombia
10.    France
11.    Germany
12.    India
13.    Jordan
14.    Kenya
15.    Lebanon
16.    Mexico
17.    Namibia
18.    Panama
19.    Paraguay
20.    Saudi Arabia
21.    South Africa
22.    South Korea
23.    Spain
24.    UAE
25.    Uganda
26.    United Kingdom
27.    Uruguay
28.    USA
29.    Venezuela